Ethanol derived acetate modifies brain epigenetic landscape

Derek Sung: @immunofluorescence

Faculty Spotlight: Cesar de la Fuente

Regenerating the lung: harnessing the untapped potential of AT2 cells

Where are they now – Theonie Anastassiadis

Faculty Spotlight: Will Bailis

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November 27, 2018

When we consider the future of cancer treatment, chemotherapy pales in comparison to immunotherapy. Unlike chemotherapy, which stops or blocks rapidly growing cells and can lead to adverse side effects, immunotherapy modifies a patient’s own cells to enhance or restore the cancer-fighting ability of the immune system. Immunotherapy has led to a marked improvement in clinical outcomes, but unfortunately only a subset of patients respond positively to this treatment. It is well known that different tumors have diverse genetic and epigenetic alterations that contribute to the range of phenotypes, and ultimately the success of treatment. However, the field la...

August 25, 2018

Stemming from a relatively recent explosion of research, the epigenetic regulation of gene expression is now appreciated as an important biological phenomenon. The prefix “epi-” means above or around in Greek, as epigenetics is defined by the study of DNA modifications that do not change the underlying sequence of the DNA. Importantly, these additions change cellular gene expression to diversify the functionality of cells with the same underlying genetic code.

Chemical modifications to DNA such as methyl groups (mCpG) are dynamically regulated to govern cell fate during development. The family of DNA methyltransferase enzymes, or DNMTs, covalently add mCp...

August 27, 2017

Hippocampal memory formation requires neuroplasticity, which is produced by the orchestrated expression of neuronal genes through chromatin modification1,2. Histone acetylation is a post-translational modification of histone proteins that helps to restructure chromatin and regulate the ability to store and recall previously acquired information3. Histone acetyltransferases (HATs) transfer acetyl groups (-COCH3) to the lysine residues of histone tails, thus neutralizing the positive charges and decreasing their affinity for negatively charged DNA that is wound around the nucleosome. This process allows the condensed chromatin structure to relax and local g...

February 14, 2017

Winter is once again upon us, but that doesn’t mean that you have to retire your bike while you await the arrival of spring. A few adjustments to your ride and the addition of cold-weather gear can help you ride safely and comfortably throughout the winter. Although much of this advice is common sense and can be applied to cyclists far and wide, this is a guide intended primarily for commuters and not for racers.  

Cold weather gear

Avoid overdressing if you have a longer commute. If you sweat during this commute exerting moderate effort in the summer, you should aim to be dressed in clothing that keeps you slightly cold at the start of your winte...

February 14, 2017

Dr. Valder Arruda began his career in Sao Paulo, Brazil as a clinician specializing in hematology and hemotherapy. His first job was to organize a hemophilia treatment center at the University of Campinas to attract and treat a greater number of patients. After almost a decade of clinical training, he received his Ph.D. in molecular biology studying the molecular basis of factor VIII deficiencies, which are responsible for 80% of hemophilia A cases. At the time, sequencing evidence had identified a number of novel factor VIII mutations in hemophilic patients. Dr. Arruda came to the realization that if you wanted to cure a factor VIII deficiency molecularl...

August 23, 2016

The first confirmed Zika virus (ZIKV) infections in Brazil were promulgated by the Pan American Health Organization in May 2015. By the start of 2016, the World Health Organization had declared the outbreak a Public Health Emergency of International Concern as evidence for a causal relationship between primary ZIKV infection during pregnancy and microcephaly amassed. Epidemiologic and pathogenic uncertainties hinder efforts to treat ZIKV. If a pregnant woman is exposed to ZIKV, how likely is she to contract the virus? What are the chances ZIKV will be transmitted to her fetus? Does sexual transmission of ZIKV pose a different risk of birth defects than mo...

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